Protein Recombinant Technology – Essay Example
The paper "Protein Recombinant Technology" is an outstanding example of a biology essay.
Protein is a biological polymer consisting of one or more amino acids linked together through dehydration synthesis forming a polypeptide chain twisted in a 3-D shape, (Bonner 2007). They are generally classified into two classes as globular proteins and fibrous proteins; structurally they are classified into primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary proteins. Their functions such as enzymes, antibodies, hormones, structural, storage and transport are determined by variations of the 20 amino acids that make up a particular protein. (Murrin et al. 1995)
A recombinant protein is any protein made from recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). A recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid is a DNA that have been manipulated by splicing genes of one species into the cell of another organism (host) of another species or can be defined as part of gene that has been modified to cord for a particular protein in host cell guided by special chemical factors (Micklas, 2003). The process of transplanting genes from one organism into another of different species is called recombinant technology.
Recombinant protein technology begins with the isolation of the gene of interest; the gene is inserted into a vector such as bacterial plasmids and viral phages, this is possible by transformation process or electroporation that enables the vector to accept the foreign genes. (Crombie & Antoniou, 2000) Various restriction enzymes are used to specify the DNA sequences that must be present and where they start and stop. The resulting DNA is screened by DNA sequencing to eliminate genes with unknown function. The vector containing the recombinant DNA is then cloned to produce multiple copies since the initial supply is not large enough to be introduced into the host cell. (March 7 2007)
The isolated vector is introduced into the host cells such as a mammalian cell, bacterial or yeast cells to cord for recombinant protein. Recombinant proteins are produced when messenger ribonucleic acid carry the information from recombinant DNA to ribosome initiating production of a particular protein according to the template. Protein expression factors accompany the DNA during its introduction to the host cell to ensure that the recombinant protein is over-expressed. (Crombie & Antoniou, 2000) Expressed recombinant proteins are then purified by separating them from destroyed cell parts. Recombinant protein technology has wide use in a medical sector such as the production of antibodies, enzymes and hormones therapies and treatment of the genetic disorder, food production in industry and veterinary medicine and insect resistant crops in agriculture. (Anderson et al 2002)